Concept of HRM
“The management of Human Resources” Is a very important and challenging job because of the dynamic nature of the people. not two persons are similar in mental abilities, traditions, sentiments, and behavior. People are responsive; they feel they think and act. therefore, they cannot be operated like a machine or material. they, therefore, need Tactful handling. before directly entering the concept of HRM, examine the concept of” human resources and management “separately.
The human resource of the people who make up the workforce of any organization, business sector, or economy. it is also called human capital or human assets. it is said that recede the knowledge, skills, and motivation of people.
Meaning of Management:
management is the process of dealing with or controlling things or people. in other words, the manager is the administration of an organization. The organization can be business, not for profit, and even the government body.
Meaning of HRM:
Human Resource Management is the strategic approach to the effective management of people in an organization So that they help the organization to gain a competitive advantage. in other words, it is the practice of recruitment to retirement.
Human Resource Management (HRM)Is concerned with people’s dimensions in the organization. to understand its concept a few definitions are given below
DeCenzo & Robbins:
” Human resource management is a process consisting of the acquisition, development, motivation, and maintenance of human resources”.
Ivancevich, Donnelly & Gibson:
“Human resource management is the process of accomplishing organizational objectives by acquiring, retaining, developing and properly using the human resource in organizations”.
“Human resource management refers to the policies and practices on a need to carry out the ‘people’ or human resource aspect of a management position, including recruiting, screening, training, rewarding and appraising”.
the first object of HRM is to attain maximum individual development. Second, get a desirable Relationship between employees and employers. Third, effective development of Human resources as contrasted with physical and other resources.
In other words, HRM includes:
- Policy and practice to manage people.
- development and motivation of human resources,
- it incorporates a requirement to retirement (R2R) programs,
the goal of HRM is to attain an optimum level of efficiency and effectiveness in the organization
HRM system (system approach to HRM)
A system is a group of interrelated parts Acting together to accomplish organizational goals. HRM is a sub-system system of any organizational system that is viewed as a group of interrelated parts with a unified proposal. like other systems, the HRM system is comprised of three bases elements, input, process, and output. is also has a feedback mechanism. HRM System operates, interacts with the both internal and external environment.
1. input of HRM system:
Objectives and strategies of the organization:
the organization is goal-oriented. they are established to attend goals. strategic and developed to achieve the stated goals. Strategies provide a means for achieving some goals or Producing some Desired results. Include a Sar objective and strategies.
- plants, policies, and producers:
other inputs for the HR system are plants, policies, and procedures of the organization. based on those inputs HR department sets its HR plans, policies, and procedures.
- organization structure:
it is a framework of authority responsibility relationship. it indicates how the organization’s activities are divided, organized, and coordinated. based on it, the number and types of employees required are determined.
- communication and decision making:
good communication is highly essential for HR effectiveness. HR functions are acquisitions, development, motivation, and maintenance all demand Communications. decision making, on the other hand, is the process of identifying and closing alternative courses of action. they also affect the HRM system.
- Environmental and social obligations:
In the last couple of decades, public attention has been focused on the issue of environmental and social responsibility of business. Their corn in foot factors for designing and implementing HRM system. Any organization gets its input from society and its output is also consumed by the societies.
2. Process of HRM system:
Those inputs received by the system (discuss the above) are processed to get them to bring the Desire outputs. input received by any HRM system is processed by (acquisitions, development, motivation, and maintenance) four-component of HRM.
This component of processing (HRM) is composed of human resource planning, recruiting (both internal and external), and employee socialization.HR planning is a process by which an organization ensures that it has the right member of people, at the right post, at the right time which is cost-effective. Recruitment is a process to discover the possible source of Manpower to meet the requirement of the staffing plan. It also ensures their applications of effective measures for attracting required applications in adequate numbers to facilitate the effective selection. Employee socialization is a process of adaption that takes place as individuals attempt to learn the values and norms of work roles.
this component of processing (HRM) is composed of employee training, management development, and career development. employee training is a process of learning – a sequence of programmed behavior/ activity. it is a learning experience. It seeks a relatively permanent change in an individual that will improve his/her ability to perform on the job. management development is a systematic process of learning and growth by which managers devil’s employees again and apply knowledge, skill, and attitude to manage an organization effectively. career development provides a supply of talent and abilities demanded by the organization. Employees also gained from career development activities (i.e., higher and more challenging jobs and rewards).
the component of processing (HRM) is composed of job design, evaluation, rewards, job evaluation, compensation/ benefits, and discipline. job design GNE motivates employees in several ways. performance evaluation tries to establish relationship/ equal equality between employer efforts (Input) and rewards(outputs)Employees Gate from doing the job. job evaluation is the process of determining the relative worth/ value of various jobs within the organization. Compensation refers to All the forms of pay/rewards done to employees raising individuals’ employment in the organization. It Can directly influence major elements like job satisfaction, accusation, and performance, and Labour relations. discipline tries to prepare a Ghar ka condition in the organization where employees conduct themselves following farmer’s rules and standards of acceptable behavior.
this component of processing (HRM) is composed of employee safety and health, and employee/labor relations. Employee safety refers to the protection of employees/ workers from the danger of accidents. Occupational health tries to prepare the workplace which is free from unnecessary risk. it ensures that the conditions surrounding the workplace are safe for employees’ physical and mental health. employee/labor relation incorporates many factors. they are freedom of establishing Employees Association, collective baring, Grievance/ dispute ending, and cooperation between employee and employers.
3. Outputs of HRS system:
they are also called dependent variables of HRM systems. they are the results/ outcomes of the HRM system which any organization wants to achieve.
the major output of the HRM system is productivity, Quality of work-life rules, and redness for change.
The Desire outputs of the HRM system are: are:
- Higher level of productivity,
- higher level of quality of work-life,
- employees who are always ready to accept and boost organizational change (rather than raising change),
- Reasonable/ optimum level of profit generation, goal achievement,
- Attainment of goals by using fewer inputs, and
- relatively lovely higher level of employee job satisfaction
4. Environment of HRM system
HRM system is also influenced by both the internal and external environment in which operates.
- Internal environment: These forces are internal to the organization which influences actives. They are within the control of any organization. Important internal elements are the Strategy of the organization, organizational structure, and culture,